Since its inception cloud computing has been playing an very important role in our day to day lives.Its now being widely used in every area.Cloud Computing can be implemented in several ways depending upon it types.
One can easily access IT resources through Cloud Computing. The cloud customers pay only for the availed services. There are different models through which users can access Cloud Computing resources.

Cloud computing can be categorized in two ways:
❖ Deployment Models
❖ Service Models

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1.Deployment Models

Based on how it is located, cloud computing can be classified in the following three ways:

● Public cloud

A cloud platform based on the standard cloud computing model in which vendors offer resources, applications storage to consumers over the internet is called as public cloud computing. The hardware resources in public cloud are shared among multiple users and are accessible over a public network. Startups having budget constraints, or organizations where high security is not a priority opt for Public Cloud Computing to save money. Here, the computing infrastructure is hosted by the cloud vendor at the vendor’s premises. The customer has no visibility and control over the location of the host computing infrastructure.

Advantages

❏ It offers greater scalability
❏ Its cost effectiveness helps you save money.
❏ It is reliable as no single point of failure will interrupt your services.
❏ SaaS, (Paas), (Iaas) are available on Public Cloud platform easily
❏ No dependency on location

Disadvantages

❏ No control over privacy or security
❏ Not apt for applications handling sensitive data
❏ Lacks flexibility as the platform depends on the vendor
❏ No strict data management protocols

● Private Cloud

A secure cloud environment where the computing infrastructure is dedicated to a single organization only and not shared with other organizations. The additional security allows companies to keep confidential and sensitive data in the private cloud environment.

Private clouds are of two types:
❏ On-premise private clouds
❏ Externally hosted private clouds.

Externally hosted private clouds are exclusively used by a single organization, but are hosted by a third party cloud provider. They are cheaper than On-premise private clouds.

Advantages

❏ Greater Security and Privacy
❏ Greater control over system configuration according to company’s need
❏ Reliable performance
❏ Enhanced quality of service
❏ Cost effective

Disadvantages

❏ Expensive as compared to public cloud
❏ Requires IT Expertise

● Hybrid Cloud

In this computing model, a combination of both public and private cloud is used. In this model, companies can use public cloud for non-confidential data transfer and switch to private cloud for sensitive data transfer or hosting of critical applications.

This helps companies achieve maximum efficiency and deliver better results to clients.

It is gaining popularity in many business, as it gives the benefits of both the models.

Advantages

❏ It is scalable
❏ It is cost efficient
❏ Offers better security
❏ Offers greater flexibility

Disadvantages

❏ Infrastructure Dependency
❏ Possibility of security breach through public cloud

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2.Service Models

Based upon the services offered, clouds are classified in the following 3 ways:

● Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) offers hardware related services through cloud computing. These include storage services (database or disk storage) or virtual servers.
It provides access to primary resources like physical machines, virtual machines, virtual storage, IP addresses, VLANs etc.
All of the resources mentioned above are available to the end users through server virtualization. Customers access these resources as if they own them.

Characteristics

❖ Automated administrative tasks
❖ Dynamic scaling
❖ Platform virtualization
❖ Internet connectivity

Benefits

❖ Users with admin rights on VMs have full control over computing resources
❖ Flexible and efficient renting of computer hardware
❖ Portable and interoperable with legacy applications

Issues

IaaS, PaaS and SaaS have common issues like network dependency and browser based risks. IaaS also has some specific issues, like:

❖ Compatibility with legacy security vulnerabilities
❖ Virtual Machine sprawl
❖ Robustness of VM-level isolation
❖ Data erase practices

● Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) offers the runtime environment for applications. It also offers the tools required for development and deployment of applications. PaaS has a point-and-click tool feature that enables even non-developers to create web applications. Some of the major PaaS providers are Google’s Application Engine, Microsoft’s Azure, Salesforce.com’s force.com. Developer may log on to these websites and use the built-in API to create web-based applications.

Characteristics

❖ Browser based development environment.
❖ Built-in security, scalability and web service interfaces.
❖ Workflow, approval processes, and business rules.
❖ Easy integration with other applications on the same platform.

Benefits

❖ Lower administrative overhead
❖ Lesser ownership cost
❖ Scalable solutions
❖ More current system software

Issues

❖ Significant burdens on customer’s browsers to maintain connections to the provider’s machines.
❖ Lack of portability between PaaS clouds
❖ Event based processor scheduling
❖ Security engineering of PaaS applications

● Software-as–a-Service (SaaS) model provides software applications as a service to the users. It refers to a software which is deployed on a host service and is accessible through Internet. Software as a service (SaaS) includes a complete software offering on the cloud. Users can access a software application hosted by the cloud vendor on pay-per-use basis. The first in this field was Salesforce.coms online Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and some other examples include Google’s gmail and Microsoft’s hotmail, Google Docs and Microsoft’s online version of office.

There are several SaaS applications listed below:

❏ Billing and invoicing systems
❏ Customer Relationship Management (CRM) applications
❏ Help desk applications
❏ Human Resource (HR) solutions

Some of the SaaS applications are not customizable like Microsoft Office Suite, but SaaS provides Application Programming Interface (API), which the developers use to customize an application.

Characteristics

❖ SaaS makes the software available over the Internet.
❖ The software applications are supported by the vendor.
❖ The license to the software may be subscription based or usage based
❖ Billing is on a recurring basis.
❖ SaaS applications are cost-effective as there is zero maintenance at the user end.
❖ Available on demand.
❖ Scalable on demand.
❖ Automatic updates.
❖ SaaS offers shared data model where multiple users can share a single infrastructure instance.
❖ All users run the same version of the software.

Benefits

Using SaaS is beneficial in terms of scalability, efficiency and performance.

Some of the benefits are:

❖ Modest software tools
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❖ Efficient use of software licenses
❖ Centralized management and data
❖ Platform responsibilities managed by provider
❖ Multi Tenant solutions

Issues

❖ Browser based risks
❖ Network dependence
❖ Lack of portability between SaaS clouds

Open SaaS and SOA(Service-oriented architecture)

Open SaaS uses SaaS applications, which are developed using open source programming language. These SaaS applications can run on any open source operating system and database. Open SaaS has several benefits listed below:

❖ No License Required
❖ Low Deployment Cost
❖ Less Vendor Lock-in
❖ More portable applications
❖ More Robust Solution

MAJOR CLOUD PROVIDERS IN MARKET

Cloud service provider (CSP) offer network services, infrastructure, or business applications. Companies or individuals access the cloud services hosted in a data center, using network connectivity.

Some of the popular cloud service providers are:

1. Amazon Web Services(AWS)

aws● AWS is the safest cloud service platform offering a wide range of infrastructure services like database storage, computing power, networking etc.
● By using AWS, Users are able to build scalable, complicated and flexible applications, using AWS.
● One can experience AWS and do hands-on using free-tier services.

2. Kamatera


● Kamatera provides very high-performance and low-maintenance and cloud infrastructure services.
● The cost is very low for their cloud services.
● They charge only according to what you use.
● There is no penalty to add or remove servers
● 99.95% uptime is guaranteed.
● There is a 30-day free trial.

3. Microsoft Azure


● It is used for deploying, designing and managing the applications through a worldwide network.
● Was known as Windows Azure, previously.
● Supports various operating systems, databases, tools, programming languages and frameworks etc.
● A free trial for 30 days is available.

4. Google Cloud Platform

● GCP uses resources located at Google data centers.
● GCP is an integrated storage for live data, used by developers and enterprises.
● Apart from the free trial, GCP offers various flexible Pay-As-You-Go payment plans.

5. Adobe


● Adobe offers many cloud products like Adobe Creative Cloud, Adobe Experience Cloud and Adobe Document Cloud etc.
● Adobe Creative Cloud service is a SaaS, offering its users, access Adobe tools like editing the videos, photography, graphic designing etc.
● Adobe Experience Cloud provides access to a broad set of advertising, campaign building and business intelligence solutions.
● Adobe Document Cloud is a complete digital documentation
● solution.

6. Vmware

● It is a universal leader in virtualization and Cloud Infrastructure.
● VMware vCloud Air is a safe and protected public cloud platform offering networking, storage, disaster recovery and computing etc.
● VMware’s Cloud solutions help organizations maximize their cloud computing profits by combining the services, technologies, guidance needed to operate and manage the staff etc.

7. IBM Cloud

● IBM Cloud offers all cloud delivery services – Iaas, PaaS, and SaaS.
● IBM Cloud gives the freedom to the users to choose and combine the desired tools, data models and delivery models in designing and creating next-generation services or applications.
● IBM Cloud is used to build pioneering way outs that can gain value for your business and industry.

8. Rackspace

● Rackspace Cloud offers a many cloud computing services like hosting web applications, Cloud Files, Cloud Block Storage, Cloud Backup, Databases and Cloud Servers etc.
● Rackspace Cloud Block Storage uses solid-state drives and hard drives, in combination, to deliver high performance.
● Rackspace Cloud Backup provides file-level backups with low cost, uses compression and encryption techniques.

9. Red Hat

● It is an Open Cloud technology that provides agile and flexible solutions to IT companies.
● We can modernize, update and manage the applications from a single point and integrate all the desired aspects into a single solution, using Red Hat Cloud.
● Red Hat Cloud Infrastructure helps us in building and managing a cost-effective, open cum private cloud.

10. Salesforce

● Salesforce Cloud Computing offers all the business applications like CRM, ERP, customer service, sales, mobile applications etc.
● Salesforce cloud computing comprises of multiple cloud services like Sales Cloud, Service Cloud, Marketing Cloud etc.
● Salesforce Sales Cloud helps in managing the customer’s contact information and automating the business processes etc.

11. Oracle Cloud

● Oracle Cloud is available as SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS.
● Oracle Cloud helps the organizations in transforming their business and reducing IT Complexity.
● Oracle Cloud SaaS is a complete data-driven and secure cloud environment.
● Oracle Cloud PaaS aids IT Enterprises and individual developers to develop, connect, protect and share data across the applications.
● Oracle Cloud IaaS is a wide set of subscription-based, integrated services.

12. SAP

● SAP Cloud Platform is an enterprise service with a wide range of application development services.
● SAP has powerful business networks, cloud collaboration, and advanced IT security, and hence it is considered as the best cloud provider.
● SAP has a universal foundation named SAP HANA, for its cloud services.
● SAP Cloud Platform is modernizing the way enterprises work on iPhone and iPad.

13. Dropbox

● Dropbox is a cloud storage service used by small businesses and customers to store artifacts virtually on remote cloud servers.
● Generally, Dropbox serves as an online personal hard drive.
● Through Dropbox, users can access any saved data or content from any device using an internet connection.
● Dropbox can be downloaded as a desktop app and you can save the files directly in the Dropbox folder located on your desktop.

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